The Glass Ceiling
Chapter 9: Chicago


Another well known example is found in the U.S. Chicago is seen across the lake from a beach in Michigan at a distance of about 50 miles. From Table 1 we know that the water bulge is 416 feet, the height of a forty storey building.

The math shows that Chicago cannot be seen from across the lake, not even the tippy tops of its tallest antennas.

This case drew fame when a mathematician showed on TV that Chicago could not be seen, only to be confounded by a rather excellent photograph of Chicago from the far shore. The network did what they could to spin this result and declared that it was a rare miragey double reflected apparent image looming in special weather conditions and more gobbledegook.

Of course, you can see Chicago all the time, in good weather and bad. Rob Skiba sailed a camera across the lake to prove it wasn't a mirage.

Hundreds more examples are easily found. The Statue of Liberty is commonly seen from 45 miles out to sea, and ships see lighthouses for more than 100 miles. If you live near a body of water, you can confirm this easily for yourself. You can see the far shore across Lake Erie or Lake Ontario.

The obvious conclusion is that water is not curved at all, but flat, just as it appears.

In 2003 Mark Fonstad and William Pugatch (Texas State University) and Brandon Vogt (Arizona State University) set out to test the oft stated assertion that Kansas is Flat as a pancake. They used the Digital Elevation Model data from the US Geological Survey. Their findings? Kansas is considerably flatter than a pancake. To be absolutely sure, they bought a pancake from IHOP and measured it with a laser scanner. Kansas is flatter than the test pancake to three decimal places.

Apparently this didn't convince the science deniers either. An expensive and well produced video by Vsauce begins derisively with "Kansas is flat but the Earth is round!".

Anyone who has driven there knows Saskatchewan is flat. There are, famous huge salt flats in Bonneville, Death Valley, Bolivia, Namibia, Argentina, Tunisia, Botswana, Chile and Iran. If water is curved and salt flats come from drying lakes, what made them flat?

We know Saskatchewan is flat, Kansas is flat, and water is flat. Salt flats are, well, flat. The inescapable conclusion is that the Earth is flat.

You can see that the Earth is flat and you can prove that the Earth is flat. Why do so many people believe the Earth is round?

Back to Bedford Level Contents Next: Satellites

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